youth's most exciting places to free trade with Japan 1962 to Bangladesh Now


help youth map 13 quizzes on Belt Road Imagineering from all over the world -eg BR0 China and BR2 bangaldesh and south asia conects over 40% of peoples

breaking news from and

what is the world's largest NGO partnership women-tech-empowering next? 

October 1 to 6 sees our next tour of brac   (world number 1 in livelihood education and with bkash 1 2  fintech for bililon poorest)and we will be accomanied by China's ying lowrey whose 2nd book on jack ma is just being publoished- refer Lowrey : AliBaba Way, Tsinghua alumni networks, (chiense only).thinkinchina - open space for alumni of tsinghua, peking and renmion universitoies- welcome ideas on how to join in empowering women, celebrating digital coop ...- linkedin unwomens - whats app 1 240 316 8157 youth media archives - noramn macrae floundation

 eg book a skype to help youth and teachers change  livelihoods of sustainability generation, Year 50- thanks everyfriend of Entrepreneurial Revolution started The Economisy 1968. Download ER's top 20 surveys here


Era of 4000+  (2**12) digital coop begins



60 japan rises

67 Moon landing to inspire Entrepreneurial Revolution

74 china rises

81 last 50 years sdgs








BANGLADESH BORN 8th largest and poorest nation 1971 -gateway between BR0 china, BR1 myanmar (asean), BR2 India (s asia) over half of worlds villagers AND..





71 Bangla1.0 open university of manual microdevelopment – person to person network out of villages with no electricity . no savings…  new eco curricula of sir fazle abed , muhammad yunus exponentially build from bottom-up ,,

95 Bangla2.0 world partnerships in digital coop testing leapfrog possibilities- mobile, solar …Partners included quadirs mit-dubai-kenya, DFID, soros, partners in health (global fund), gates, jica, mastercard, intel, danone,


Opportunity of leapfrogging huge-

risk to manual microcredits of ownership surviving tech investment huge – india one of places that failed to micro-app

but Nilekani now built billion person data micro network

16-30 Bangla 2.1 what next? Bkash a billion customer model? BUT

Examples of help needed beyond east’s cultural fusion…- still no superport or road corridor; still most at risk to climate- still sidelined from un sdg financing/edu summits=hi-level action research ; and big coop challenges eg livelihood edutech; crisis in upgrading girls lives in fashion as main export market; brac uni as partner in top10 sdg unis

71-95 how

Livelihood edu for all and Reinvented aid – direct giving -see what you get with ;poorest; social business model

Note 4 market levels that sme value chain redesign from bottom-up needs to integrate

4.1 One region’s  village

4.1bis 200000 villages across nation – village mothers microfranchisng and microfinance

4.2 National market leadership – purposeful social enterprise

4.3  markets

Eg brac 4.1 72-78 started as bottom up disaster – brac’s dna always been livelihood edu for all maximizing community’s self-capacity and then staying locally (merging market of disaster relief and development)..tested solution 7 years  (because sir fazle had been shells national ceo could access world solution -green era rice science, oral rehydration …)

41bis 78-85  chose sequence to go national – health, financing, food security –

85-92once village mothers economy founded – started to deliver their wishes for next generation – eg informal primary- at this stage invited world to come and see village center model – yunus became more famous as usa tour guide – asked to start international consulatancy (grameen trjust and the separately owned grameen foundation and later grameen America)

92-99 internationally bangladesh idea adopted as inspiring future of millennium goals, microcreditsummi (sam daley harris)  from 1997; back in bangladesh huge tech partnership tests began in 1996

#theeconomist - diary with million times more computing/networking resources IS IT NOW possible race to earth sustainability goals like man raced to moon in 1960s

In 1984 The Economist publshed five questions regarding possibility of designing global vilage age to sustain millennials- each with 7 year timeline that needed worldwide debate85-91 q1) what to do about the fall of te berlin wall in 1988 The Economist's 1984 debating idea was rich nations led by usa should invite small entrepreneur across the old ussr to join up their skills- something usa did quite successfully mediate for germany and japan from 1946; and america with russia should dismantle all te asymetric dictatorships that had been sponsored across the globe's cold war - 

90-96 what to do about the first 7 years of worldwidewed post-industrial revolution

 the economist 1984 idea- put say 5% of english-speaking education budgets into something not disimilar to khan academy - make turning the www into the smartest jobs-learning media even more exciting and nation-aligining than moon races of 1960s

96-01 q3) what to do with mobilisation of universal bottom up connectivity ..the economist 1984 idea now blend the education revolution with leapfrog markets for poorest including microsolar and bringing down degrees of freedom in sharing life criticsal information flows.

magically the chiense r=equired what ecame te big 3 internet companies to spend 1994-2008 desiging and testing before scaling; also in 1996 larouche from europehosted first eurasian usmmit in beijing 

00-06- how to celebrate a worldwide awareness that mans biggest risk was discrepancy of incomes and expectations between rich and poor nations. reach out to more than a hillion people with a reality tv apprenticeship program on solutions to end poverty but linkin the worlds number 1 web page to viewers continuing microfranchise concept testing- scaling thsoie that worked across global villages06-12 check that all the macroeconomic system fixes first listed in 1972 had been redesigned so that the global financial system did not colapse in 2010s. - make sure digital and cashless banking is designed around oposiyte principles to printing paper moeny and funding big get bigger to start loan chains
.earthrace.jpg21st C US congress and media has to be scored 0/10 on this- ironically 1946 congress excellent at giving japanese and german people opportunity to develop small entrepreneurial livelihoods- in japan case around developing quality electronics onitially from surplus war gadgets  -case study birth of sony while the clintons had meet dr yunus in bangladesh before bill's 1992 presidency, and while yunus had wanted to celebrate tech for the poor- they constructed fundraising not pro-youth knowledge networking  summits around him.while the bangladeshi diaspora family brought mobile partnershipto yunus as gremen phone in 1996, he rushed ahead over the coming yeras in ways that could not support hi-tech wizards continuous transformation around him; yunus was also broght microsolar knowledge by leaders of - here grameen energy did an outstanding job until the nobelprize temprarily cauised yunus to dabble with politicsbagladesh and china have become places where the most extraordianry partnering netwirks aligned with this have started to emerge but note it wasnt until 2007 that China was invited to join in forming the g20- prior to that it started sustainability debates wherever clusers like BRICs and SCO united annual leadership summits


ironically while obama's mother had adapted bangladesh ideas in late 1980s to some of indonesias most locally skiled networks, and bangladesh banking logics had been sustained over 15 yerars on s side of chicago, obama used reverse logics in reengineering banks out of bankruptcy in 2009 

.bkash and alipay are two examples of sustainable fintech systems with blochchain technolgy becoming a battle ground between the sustainable get motre sustainable (aka little siste futures) versus the big get bigger (aka big brother futures


End poverty

rural bangladesh was developed out of poverty by village mothers. they were trained in microfranchsies and market value chains were redesiged so they efficient hard working mothers earned a living wage which they reinvested in the chidrens development- loans through microfinace plus plus model were only given to those who had learnt the franchise and had sufficuent health etc to get started; the ultra poor were empowered through direct cash or capital transfers (eg the gift of a cow or goat) with the goal of graduating them into microfinance plus plus- today brac has succesfully transition mobile operating the largest cashless bank cbased oon text mobile i

.End hunger - famine ended with rice crop science- vitamin deficiencies especially first 1000 days ended with veggies -eg carrots; polutry and dairy value chains also redesigned round poorest3 infant health improved with rural nationwide education oral rehydration- thence over 100000 village para health maternal and infant last mile .reducing family size exoected from mother over 10 kids to about 3 improved health and work of village mothersvilage montessori primary first used to creeate enough literate teachers; then connecetd with microfinacedmkithers promise to send all children to primary-seckindary scholarships one of furst cases of conditional cash trabsfer- asir fazle abed reciogunsed as world leader in Learning for Living at inaugural education kaureates Wise... much more.ending traetment of vilage mothers as underclass was major cultural innovation of womens banking circles - barefoot lawyers - village mothers microfinacing of one room monsoon and cyclone proof huts contracted ownership to women..pit latrines connected to one room houses first innovation- bangladesh extra crisis with water caused by arsenic- boliing water, filtering water, not digging deep wells all local foci; brac's WASH program is now benchmark round worldbangladesh pioneer in microsolar from 1996 and biogas ovens. nations vilages had no electricity and dirty and dangeropus kerosene used to be main fuel- synergy between microsolar and universal mobile access - both leapfrogs at same time..........

























2.0 recommendationsin addition to sir fazle abed- quadi=r brothers who started mobile in the villages - quadir out of miut and kamal as implementer in bangladesh; their coders club include nick highes whose work on mpesa in kenya has enabled brac to build bkash; it ois notable that sal khan is another bangladeshi diaspora= watch out for khan academy translations in bangladesh - on curricula like finacial literacy the opportunity is to blend what khan knows wiuth what brac has been teaching in its 40000 primary schools based on the aflatoun curriculum for 3rd graders which started in an indian orpanage- as well as tech trasformatiuon from 1.0 to 2.0 brac is now empoweroing poorest daughters of vilage mothers now often working in the city - brac bank serves them

almost all brac solutions interact ending poverty with other gaosl such as nuttrition, education , health; we will try and clarify those overlaps -we welcome recommened links 


Anyone who would like to help youth become te sustainability generation can best check solutions to 17 sdgoals that were inspired

in bangladesh or after partnerships integrating bangladeshi knowhow- this is because when it comes to the most ultra challenges

bangladesh has batteled them all from being the porest large nation in 1972 without electricity or any infrastructire, from being

a place where almost all women were an underchlass but became the most productive of village builders to having eg arsenic

in uch of its water supply thus requiring unique solutions to still being the nation who may have moree people displaced by

climate even at the so-called paris goal; to being the first rural nation to experiment with leapfrog solutions from universal

text mobule to microsolar - we'd advise people to check source solutions with partners who work directly with sir fazle abed

though we welcome other nominations. because we map a lot6 of investment china wants to make we cant recommend working

directly in bangladesh with anyone unable to get on with the government (though privately we love the creativity that dr yunus

brought to the gramween bank in the days that it was mainly owned by the porest women themselves

From Norman Macrae Foundation Bangladesh was the last future history study area of my father's 86 years - the majority spent editing pro-youth valuation dialogues at The Economist 

[1] Bangladesh was born as the world's poorest 100+ million person nation in 1971. It had the shortest straw of independence having been religiously bundled with West Pakistan when the British Empire left the Indian subcontinent. The war of independence left Bangladesh structurally flattened. Government's resources started with next to no revenues for social development. Dhaka and a handful of cities were the priority. Essentially, rural people up to three quarters of the population, were left to network their own social services to be built out of next to nothing other than land like the Ganges Water Basin which can be very fertile but climactically volatile. Into this most extreme innovation challenge came to be the two most extraordinary rural collaboration entrepreneurs committing their lives to the race to end poverty. ( ,  From 1972, Fazle Abed (1 2 3 4 5), a graduate of Glasgow University, and a Chartered Accountant who was running the local office of the Shell Multinational when a cyclone hit killing half a million people. About the same time Muhammad "Dialogues" Yunus (1 2 3 4 5)  returned to his mother country from training to be an economics professor out of Tennessee USA. He was soon to linkin energetic student networks out of Chittagong University with barefoot experiments into how to end poverty by professionally-minded graduates living in the villages. By 1983, the most extraordinary microfranchise network Grameen Bank was constituted by national law to replicate its sustainability model (empowering circles of 60 village mothers to build their own livelihoods with a student financial services branch manager barefoot responsible for 60 such circles). The fame of this simplest of all banking circle models spread across hemispheres. For example, Obama's mother helped import it to Indonesia, while Hillary and Bill Clinton visited Grameen's villages in the 1980s as one of their first experiences of foreign assistance. As The West's acceleration of Globalisation got on its own Moores law in the 1980s, 
the inconvenient truth of future inequality can be stated as: three halves of the world's population –poorest, women, youth -each has much less than 10% of assets and voice in what future net generation will bring. Crucially, Bangladesh was not only the world's deepest partner as a Global University of Poverty but in 1996 as grameen phone introduced the first mobile investment banking partnerships with poorest village mothers became destined to be sustainability’s most natural lab for digital womens empowerment of infrastructures that the whole industrial age had failed to linkin to rural.


Consider Bangladesh  clues for readers of The Economist and Youth World's Most Collaboration Entrepreneur Leaders

 Norman Macrae's Q3 and most of Q4 @ The Economist: Consider Japan from 1962; Consider Asian Pacific worldwide youth century and lead currency from 1975...Fast Forward to Consider redevelopment of Cox'sa Bazaar  , Royal Automobile Club, London Saint James 2008. and subsequent dialogues on celebrate Bangladesh at 40 as number 1 Youth Collaboration Lab for end poverty experiments; Glasgow-Bangaldeshi-www Youth Interdependence Declaration 4 July 2010 -race to atlanta as greatest twin capital of youth's millennium goals and job creation Nov 2015 -all of above need integrating into 9 minute khan-ac type training modules of The Curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution , linkedin round The Economist since 1972 -how open education can make 21st Century's coming of age- youth's most productive and sustainable era 

In searching the world for the most exciting "future of youth" purposes particular market sectors could value, Bangladesh has stimulated more innovative ideas since 2001 than anywhere else we have been able to link into- however with extremely affordable system transformations comes a lot of conflict resolution  - the next 5 years seem to be at a tipping point in terms of whether youth's aspirations of collaborating around millennium goals and being gainfully employed with all this new borderless technology are given a chance by youth capitalism investors -if these issues concern you mail

Over the 24 months of 2014-2015 we will be reporting connections between youth summits wherever we can linkin and assemble micro-wikis around the above issues - you can help us here: Googledoc the most collaborative 24 month race youth have played



PC1 Was it a mistake for a book, whose main economic recommendation was that open education would be the net generation's greatest ever entrepreneurial freedom to start with valuing how to network peace?

APC1.1 Timing is everything in mediating transformation in worldwide  system futures. Noran argued that 1984 was the greatest opportunity since world war 2 for citizens to vote against governments spending (through tax) a fifth of all their lives on arms.  Why 2014 is the other greatest youth opportunity to bid for worldwide peace 

APC1.2  None of his obituary writers at The Economist or elsewhere understood Norman's timeline: spending his youth in parts of Europe ruled over by stalin or hitler, spending his last days as a teenager navigating raf planes over modern day Bangladesh and Myanmar, going up to Cambridge to be mentored by keynes that the number 1 system design job of economist is to end hunger and that youth should never let those in power divorce the future compounding disciplines of economics and peace 

APC1.3 Ironically all those readers and investors in the entrepreneurail revolution curriclum which Noramn spent 40 yeras editing The Economist from number 3 weekly uk journal to one of a kind global viewspaper understood how the search for peace was embedded in all his major surveys: as the only journalist to be at the founding of the EU, as the journalist who believed the deviation of the BBC fgrom world service was the greatest missed opportunity in mass media, as the journmalist who cheered on Japan as the most value multiplying nation of 1962 and asia pacific worldwide yoyth region liberating china as the turn of the millenniums greatest opportunity for youth to design colaborative millennium goals and action networks around 

APC1.4 Dismally few of the 21st C most famous economist undersrand the curiculum of economics that Keynes mentored his alumni including Norman on:

1 the core job of the economists is to back whatever system designs she or he believes will help the human race unite to end poverty ( see the last Keynes last essay on persuasion); see also last 3 pages of Keynes general throory on why youth's greatest enemy is a particular type of elderly academic economist who is most prone to pad his pension with funding from big governments on indsutry sectors that have lost that purpose which has most relevance to producing future livelihoods.

Future of Open Education Curriculum celebrated 1984 out of The Economist after 12 years reporting access to the UK National Development Project in Computer Assisted Learning

Gordon Dryden 2010: .vision 2020- update of The Economist's Norman Macrae 1984 first vis.....


Poverty Free World - Social Business - a step forward by Muhammad Yunus


Paper on The Economics Globalisation almost lost by Andrew Neil of ...BBC


Adam Smith, Science & Human Nature by Professor Skinner (The Principal of Glasgow University kindly hosted a joint remembrance party to Andrew Skinner and Norman Macrae)



MY0  MY1  MY2  MY3  MY4  MY5  MY6

KH1 KH2 KH3 KH4 KH5 


Entrepreneurial Revolution- Declaration of Youth Interdependence, Glasgow 4 July 2010:           In Pursuit of Adam Smith's 252 year old curriculum of hi-trust leadership and livelihood freedoms,  we ask youth's social and business networks to celebrate job creation through these world changing collaborations between 2010 and 2018  Update 2014-2016 PRIORITY COLLABORATION DIARY

  1. world stage 21st c Version of I'd like to Teach The World to Sing at Atlanta Nov2015
  2. to stage BBC21 (Brazil-Britain-China Sports Stars who give back to village sustainability) ; 
  3. to ask Norwegian and Roman Nobel Judges to demand EU becomes Youth's Entrepreneurial Union;
  4. to Consider Bangladesh's youth's right to be end poverty world's most heroic entrepreneurs - and what else rsvp  Norman Macrae Foundation: Youth Capitalism, Peace Dividends and Open Education's Entrepreneurial Revolution 
CO-SIGNED, (, (University of, (Entrepreneurial Union) (, and who else -rsvp  washingtn dc hotline 1 301 881 1655  



Correspondence welcome Norman Macrae Foundation Washington DC region 1 301 881 1655 

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 22 Nov 2013 Atlanta launches Yunus Creative Labs Inc USA Foundation for benchmarking how 25000 youth summits can co-create million jobs capitals with thanks to Yunus 1 2Turner, Carter ... CNN celebrates

Yunus is among CNN’s 12 greatest entrepreneurs of all time

 6 December Glasgow University discusses what 255 years of Adam Smith Scholarship knows about helping FutureLearn and Youth's top 100 wholeplanet investor co-create million jobs Future Capitals

 1 Jan 2014 DC seeks to become 21st chapter of Conscious Capitalism 

- given constraints of having to work out of washington DC for family reasons, at the moment mails we try most urgently to reply to include those mentioning salman khan , jeff skoll, and john doeer s a key cluster in san frnacisco and john mackey to the extent that his conscious capitalism may be celebrated as an interstate and pro-youth benchmarking movement help us linkin happiest news of Bangladesh's people

RESOURCES of The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant

 Norman Macrae Foundation 5801 Nicholson Lane Suite 404 N.Bethesda MD 20852

Tel 301 881 1655 email consider bangladesh was last of a consider series of projects i helped dad research for his analyses at The Economist (starting with consider japan in 1962) and other publications including his first 1984 maps of net generation's millennium goals and 3 billion new job apps - Norman's family enjoys all entrepreneurial revolution feedback. Welcome


November 30, 2012
Dear Friends,
This morning the Daily Star, Bangladesh's largest English language newspaper printed an op-ed (pasted below at nearly 1,200 words) by Gus Speth, former head of UNDP and currently a professor at Vermont Law School. It was originally published in Bangladesh's largest Bangla-language newspaper in a shortened version. Professor Yunus asked if it could be reprinted in newspapers around the world. Here is what he wrote: "It is an excellent piece. I am glad Daily Star printed the entire piece. Thanks to Gus for writing it and thanks to you for making it happen. The article appeared at a time when we needed it the most. Would you like to place it in other papers in other countries? Yunus." For most newspapers it would have to be edited first. I have attached an 804 word version. Please feel free to circulate the longer version below to your networks or pitch the longer or shorter version to newspapers.
Here's the full length op-ed. Sam D-H

Planted in the soil of Bangladesh and transplanted around the world

James Gustave Speth

As I prepared to take the helm of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in 1993, one of the many things I focused on was an examination of innovative ways to address poverty. I already knew about Grameen Bank and its work to give microcredit to poor women in Bangladesh but as I studied Grameen more closely, it became clear that Muhammad Yunus and his colleagues had discovered a series of strategies that were absolute breakthroughs in addressing poverty. Years before visitors had begun arriving from around the world to study Grameen Bank and to take the seeds that had blossomed in the soil of Bangladesh and transplant them in their own countries.

One of the early visitors was Rockefeller Foundation President Peter Goldmark who would later become publisher of the International Herald Tribune. Here is how Goldmark described the breakthroughs he saw during his visit more than two decades ago:

On the day I was there, the women were sitting, reporting to a loan officer, jumping to their feet, reciting their 16 decisions or pledges.

As I watched, I could see something else. I could see the smashing of ancient rules, the shattering of a traditional canon. I could see subversion. Here's what was being subverted:

"The belief that poor people are helpless people

The belief that women are the most helpless of all

The belief that poor landless people are terrible credit risks

The belief that poor people cannot cooperate, cannot plan ahead, cannot decide for themselves, cannot manage or service a loan

The belief that a lot of credit is always better than a little credit

The belief that the best form of economic development is aid for massive centralised projects undertaken by the state

The belief that you can build the economy by destroying the earth

If the old beliefs were made of pottery, the floor of the Grameen Bank would be littered with broken shards….

It's the only bank in the world with its own birth control policy. Its members make this pledge: 'We shall plan to keep our families small'

It's the only bank in the world with its own marriage policy. Its members make this pledge: 'We shall keep the center free from the curse of dowry. We shall not practice child marriage'

It's the only bank in the world with its own sanitation policy. Its members make this pledge:'We shall build and use pit latrines'

Do you begin to see how much can be accomplished if we choose to look at the world in a different way?"

One of the ancient rules that Goldmark saw broken at the individual level, "the belief that poor people cannot cooperate, cannot plan ahead, cannot decide for themselves," was expanded by Grameen Bank to the institutional and governance level. Not only were the members making decisions about their own lives and the lives of their communities but they were also electing nine of the Bank's 12 board members who were charged with governing the entire institution. If only the commercial banks of the world could have learned this lesson from Grameen Bank and had their boards filled with clients who were invested in the success of their banks, then perhaps the financial crisis of 2008 could have been avoided.

Of course, this is what is so profoundly tragic about the government's decision to strip the selection of the managing director from the borrower-dominated board and place it in the hands of the government-selected chair. The nine women board members have been duly elected by the 8.4 million mostly women members, members who own 97% of the shares in Grameen Bank with the government owning the remaining three percent. Globally, the last several decades have seen the slow dismantling of the rampant subjugation of women, with Grameen Bank among those leading the way. And now, in 2012, this power is taken away from the women board members? Grameen Bank, for decades a global model for the empowerment of women, now, at the hands of the Bangladesh government, becomes a model for the disempowerment of women. How can that be?

Of course, empowering women goes hand-in-hand with ending poverty. Grameen Bank was born at about the time that then-US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger called the newly independent Bangladesh "a bottomless basket case." Thankfully, time has shown how very wrong Secretary Kissinger turned out to be. Now, when the United Nations lists the countries that are most likely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, Bangladesh shares a spot at the top of the list. Any serious researcher or development expert will tell you that that progress is grounded in the work of Grameen Bank and the other actors in Bangladesh's vibrant civil society. Why would any government put that vibrancy in jeopardy when it has made such a difference and been such a vital lifeline to its people?

It is critical to note that Muhammad Yunus' innovations don't just stop with banking. Before my tenure at UNDP, I co-founded the Natural Resources Defense Council and the World Resources Institute. When I left UNDP I became Dean of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies and now I teach at the Vermont Law School, a school with one of the leading programmes in environmental law. So care of our environment has been a central part of my life's work. When I look at the achievements of Grameen Shakti, it takes my breath way. Grameen Shakti installed more than 24,000 solar home systems in August 2012 and nearly 1 million since its inception. Grameen Shakti sold nearly 14,000 improved cooking stoves in August 2012 and more than half a million since its inception. With some 7 million beneficiaries and nearly 12,000 employees I must add that if only the energy companies in the rest of the world could have emulated the achievements of Grameen Shakti then we would have been farther along in averting the climate crisis we now face.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee saw the brilliance of Grameen Bank six years ago when it jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to Grameen Bank and Muhammad Yunus. Soon the US Congress will present the Congressional Gold Medal to Professor Yunus who is only the seventh person in history to receive the Peace Prize, the Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. And what does Grameen Bank receive from its own government? It receives a heartbreaking attack on its autonomy and what could be a fatal blow to the hope it has provided to tens of millions of its members and their families.

When the government seized control of the selection of the Bank's managing director from the nine women borrower/owners Muhammad Yunus said: "This day will go down in history as a black day for our nation. Our government has taken over a globally admired and Nobel Prize winning institution from its rightful owners-rural poor women-and has brought the bank under their management control. In so doing, the unique feature of Grameen Bank has been fundamentally compromised. It is very difficult for me to absorb this sad news."

I agree. It is very difficult for us all.

The writer was Administrator of the United National Development Program and Chair of the United Nations Development Group. Currently he is a Professor at the Vermont Law School.


Courtesy Prothom Alo. (This article was specially written for the Prothom Alo anniversary issue) 

The 64 Trillon Dollar Question of Media Economics

Which could have been the most valuable global brand of 2010s? When i first studied value of yunus-grameen brand partnership architecture in 2006 its valuation expoenential was on an annual doubling - while the baseline in 2006 is debatable --lets call it 3 billion dollars -- ie roughly $600 of productive equity per grameen's 5 million female members -then its valuation's growth exponential =

2007: 6 billion dollars
2008: 12 billion dollars
... by end 2009 conflicts were starting to multiply around grameen which stopped the trajectory- but the question that will haunt the rest of my life is: could this moores-law type valuation doubling have continued linking in co-production of the most exciting goals of the millennium? - who is to say that the knowledge network of collaboratively racing to poverty museums wasn't the net generation's most value multiplying brand -especially if as usa
youth1000 experiments are NOW verifying in 4 states the open tech knowhow of ending poverty and of creating jobs for youth is economically congruent.

valuing grameen was the last project I was privileged to do under mentoring of The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant (my dad Norman Macrae)- what can his help to value next - research of over 5000 youth in america suggests it is worlh searching out unique brands that are most trusted in freeing the productive purposes of the following markets



education - and more pro-youth economic markets - see and help q&a diversity of purposes at you can also help our search for 100 leading decision-makers of 2010s = worldwide youth's most productive decade at

footnote: The Economist's quest to mediate the economics of ending hunger is 170 years old in 2013 - so if you have any ideas on how friends of Norman Macrae Foundation. Yunus or other pro-youth economists should be celebrating that please contact me any time

Norman Macrae Foundation
5801 Nicholson Lane Suite 404 N.Bethesda MD 20852
Tel 301 881 1655 email

Journalist for Humanity invites youth to help edit following nings- yunuscity yunusasia

webs .


Latest Bangladesh Discussions of stakeholders of The Economist

Arvind - and I read The Economist article as crediting all the peoples/womens/youth's grassroots networking and collaboration entrepreneurship - sometimes empowered by different combinations of the 4 actors you mention. Being someone who loves to search The Economist archives for bottom-up collaboration frameworks, I can't help but think that 2 of the greatest tragedies to greet the birth of a new nation - the local cyclone that wiped up half a million people but became the birth of BRAC brand as work's number 1 grassroots disaster relief NGO, and the million person famine that got Yunus and Youth out of the macroeconomic classroom - have accidentally stimulated inter-generational investment maps in how to go beyond top-down aid because such trickle down processes seldom generate economic impacts and even less seldom multiply transparent relationship flows.

The Economist was also Entrepreneurial Revolutionary at its 1843 founding. Being an end-hunger social action/mediation devised by Scot James Wilson to purge The Empire's parliament of the majority of his fellow MPs sponsored by vested interests of the 0.1% not the sustainability of the 99.9%. As Keynes general theory advised all young people to constantly question- who's economics and politics are you being ruled by??? Because the first joyful idea that all 21st C societies of the first net generation need to share about innovation is that the maths of compound system impacts that makes the 0.1% bigger can never be resolved with what entreprenurially sustains the lifetime productivities of the 99.9%

Arvind AshtaNov 11th, 22:48

Its really a lovely story and its nice to see Bangladesh getting some positive reports.
One thing does intrigue me though: in microfinance we have so much difficulty proving impact of anything. Yet the Economist is so simply able to discern that the credit should go to BRAC and NGOs and not to Grameen nor to the government.
I wonder how they do it.

     Latest DC Debates of economics of womens entrepreneur networking Could I suggest a meeting at USAID?  

My family and I are very passionate but the kinds of transformation in analysis mindset that both value chain approach and womens entrepreneur lens have built from continuity of 2 obama administrations. These connect with arguments on network transformation to economics my father first debated in The Economist in early 1970s which he coined Entrepreneurial Revolution and from which both Drayton Social Entrepreneur and Gifford Pinchot Intrapreneur credit their choice of terminology


My father's last project sent me to Bangladesh 8 times to study Grameen and BRAC as well as to host a 2000 book club around Yunus social business. There are 2 particular ideas I would like to iterate with you

Recommended Agenda 1 of 2  1) As per my public question on Tuesday, if Steve Radlett would include a 4th factor : on specific opportunity of village women entrepreneurs. Their social networks can compound different communal impacts. This opens up 2 consciously different  analysis views. A) How mobiles change village dynamics round women. For example now that Bangladesh has been studying this for 16 years, the chance to train up girls to build 21st century  nursing networks (communities most urgent action and life critical information connectors) is seen by both Grameen and BRAC as a gamechanger. Apps such as mobile ultrasound (and other Grameen-Intel innovations) now  linkin such girls to hunt out the 10% of mothers at risk to child birth ahead of time and link them into experts. If you play through the impact of mobilising the end of nurseless villages this will exponentially bring down the costs of infant and maternal healthcare by a factor of two or three  as well as be a huge job creator for young women. Another huge app is the total design of cashless banking (and India's 600 million person personal identity for aid being led by Infosys Nilekani) blended with what national regulations are chosen ahead of operations. In effect this becomes a last chance to change banking systems (and aid) back to value multiplying purpose of crediting entrepreneurial productivity as an opposite system to profiting from trapping people in debt.

B) The womens social network views also leads to discussing how the poorest gain from maximising non-monetary exchanges in the community. Such hi trust behaviors as neighbours looking after each others children (in effect as community goodwill flows not separated monetary transactions) are how Grameen and BRAC changed the way end poverty was hubbed. Moreover goodwill exchanges lead to multi-win modeling that compound rising exponentials impacts that zero-sum mindsets cant imagine innovating

Recommended Agenda 2 of 2.

   The approach of asking USAID partners to show a transparent value chain map as part of all future work is exciting because every major impact Grameen or BRAC ever had involved a value chain transformation. When this is understood arguments that microcredits only work for women comfy with risk become less salient because it is the duty of the microcredit to reduce the cost/risk of the sales channel. Moreover arguments that microcredit has a design bias to extremely small businesses are misemphasised. Take for example the very latest intervention of JICTA and Grameen. It starts with a cooperative of 8000 farmers -aimed at doubling each year. Even though each is individually microfinanced, they cooperatively shares Japan's crop science of murgh beans and are guaranteed them a pooled export market to Japan as well as the food security of a new crop for local consumption at world class efficiency of cultivation.

 Additional note for investors in 2010s as wprldwide youth's most productive decade

Back in 1984 my father's and my first book on net generation economics both proposed inviting youth to co-produce the most exciting goals (including ending poverty) wand recommended mediating future market purposes to value the collaboration tech of the web by starting up maps of youth's next 3 billion jobs that can only come from above zero-sum models. Girl empowering designs that transform value chain maps are a hot spot for investing in all pro-youth economic models. One of the reasons why dr Yunus is now dedicating his life to student entrepreneur social business competitions (4 statewide ones in USA this academic year and a 12000 live competition in Tokyo January 2013) is that by taking a pro-youth economic lens to which student projects to celebrate as winners, we can map back the future in which the net generation compounds sustainable investments in the most productive time worldwide youth have ever enjoyed.


You can also see how The Economist has brought a different kens to analysing lessons form Bangladesh in Nov 3 issue. Since my father's death three reviews of the interconnection between his and Yunus pro-youth economic mindset have been held : at The Economist boardroom; with the Japanese and Bangladeshi civic society leaders in Japan's Embassy in Dhaka; and with South Africa's implementation leader of Mandela-Branson partnership investment in free universities of youth entrepreneurs.


Can we meet to pool what all our pro-youth and pro-womens economic analysis tools may have innovated over last 5 years?


Further blog notes are being made in our research of where will youth's 10000 greatest job creators linkin from at and   

 are you just-in-time for revolution in Norman Macrae Family Foundation Washington DC hotline 301 881 1655

1:54ThumbnailWatch Laterentrepreneurialrevolution.avi 

 SPECIAL Pro-Youth Economics FEATURES ON BANGLADESH AT THE ECONOMIST - 3-9 November 2012 :

USA, Bangladesh and Worldwide Youth at Crossroads - for discussions with The Economist post here 1 1a - for discussions with worldwide youth join in the collaboration blog family project of Norman Macrae Foundation - eg DCyouth10000 - for current associated blogs - see yunuscity - for deeper maps of networks of millennium goal projects most inspired by bangladesh see leadersandyunusand bracnet - for other top100 pro-youth leadership profiles vote for who we haven't yet logged up at -queries washington dc hotline 1 301 881 1655

Bangladesh - unfinished ER projects 1 2 3

..cb3_jpg.jpg...Keynes mentored The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant (aka dad Norman Macrae) that an economist's prime responsibility was productivity of all (missing) generations of youth. It was typical that Norman would see Bangladesh as his last project - not just celebrating the potential of Bangladeshi youth to be leading players in mobile web technology but open network transformers of worldwide youth future productivity anywhere that politicians were destroying their next generation's productivity. For some Norman will be the champion of development of asia pacific region, as (1962) he was the first westerner to celebrate Japan's world trade economics as designing futures models that borderless world youth could win-win with... But after seeing 500 youth sharing knowhow around a digital network in 1972 , Norman actively designed The Economist's genre of Entrepreneurual Revolution to discredit politicians/academics anywhere who got the wrong end of the stick on economics of debt. When in 2010s you have the greatest ever time to invest in youth, a nation's only problem with joyfully linking in to 10 times more health and wealth than ever before is if other nations dont trust you to invest in youth's future productivity. It is extremely bad timing that Euro-Austerity, WallStreetitis are the sickest diseases macroeconomists have ever caught. Help urgent search of 100 antidote leaders at  


USA, Bangladesh and Worldwide Youth at Crossroads - for discussions with The Economist post here 1  1a  - for discussions with worldwide youth join in the collaboration blog family project of Norman Macrae Foundation - eg DCyouth10000 - for current associated blogs - see yunuscity - for deeper maps of networks of millennium goal projects most inspired by bangladesh see leadersandyunusand bracnet - for other top100 pro-youth leadership profiles vote for who we haven't yet logged up at -queries washington dc hotline 1 301 881 1655

Bangladesh - unfinished ER projects 1 2 3

Out of the basket

Lessons from the achievements—yes, really, achievements—of Bangladesh

IN 1976, five years after independence, a book appeared called “Bangladesh: The Test Case of Development”. It was a test, the authors claimed, because the country was such a disaster that if development could be made to work there, it could surely work anywhere. At the time, many people feared Bangladesh would not survive as an independent state. One famine, three military coups and four catastrophic floods later, the country that Henry Kissinger once dismissed as “a basket case” is still a test. But no longer in the sense of being the bare minimum that others should seek to surpass. Now, Bangladesh has become a standard for others to live up to.

As our briefing points out (see article), in the past 20 years Bangladesh has made extraordinary improvements in almost every indicator of human welfare. The average Bangladeshi can now expect to live four years longer than the average Indian, though Indians are twice as rich. Girls’ education has soared, and the country has hugely reduced the numbers of early deaths of infants, children and mothers. Some of these changes are among the fastest social improvements ever seen. Remarkably, the country has achieved all this even though economic growth, until recently, has been sluggish and income has risen only modestly.

Bangladesh might seem like a special case. Because of its poverty, it has long been a recipient of vast amounts of aid. With around 150m people crammed into a silted delta frequently swept by cyclones and devastating floods, it is the most densely populated country on Earth outside city states. Hardly any part is isolated by distance, tradition or ethnicity, making it easier for anti-poverty programmes to reach everyone. Unusually, it has a culture that is distinct from its religion: although most Bangladeshis are Muslims, their culture and language are shared with the non-Muslim Indian state of West Bengal. Religious opposition to social change has been mild. Not many nationalities have so unusual a collection of traits.

The female factor

That said, the most important of the country’s achievements can serve as a model for others. Bangladesh shows what happens if you take women seriously as agents of development. When the country became independent, population-control policies were all the rage (this was the period of China’s one-child policy and India’s forced sterilisations). Happily lacking the ability to impose such savage restrictions, the government embarked instead upon a programme of voluntary family planning. It was stunningly successful. It not only halved the rate of fertility within a generation, but also increased women’s influence within their own households. For the first time, wives controlled the size of families.

Later, the textile industry took off—and four-fifths of its workers are female. Bangladesh was also the home of microcredit, tiny loans for the poorest. By design, these go to women. Thus, over the past two decades women have earned greater influence in the home and more financial autonomy. And, as experience from round the world shows, women spend their money differently from men: typically, on their children’s food, health and education. Child welfare has been underpinned by a quiet revolution in the role of women.

That is not all there was to it. Thanks to remittances from abroad and to the Green Revolution, Bangladesh has done better than most at reducing persistent rural poverty. It has maintained a broad consensus in favour of basic social spending despite military coups and a toxic politics dominated by the bitter infighting of the “battling begums” (the widow and daughter of former presidents, who lead the two main parties). Bangladesh has also benefited by letting non-governmental organisations (NGOs) get on with what the state itself has been too weak or corrupt to do: experiment with different programmes and scale up those that work. Much of its success is attributable to local NGOs like Grameen and BRAC.

Bangladesh has shown that countries can transform the lives of the poorest without having to wait for economic growth. But it does not show that growth is irrelevant. The country would surely have done better still if its economy had expanded faster, as it could have done. As people’s education and expectations rise further, it will be all the more important to provide new jobs and opportunities for advancement.

Delta force

Moreover, Bangladesh’s achievements remain vulnerable to political interference. The prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, is vindictively meddling with Grameen Bank, removing its boss and trying to impose her own choice upon the institution’s shareholders—all to punish its founder, Muhammad Yunus, for daring to think of setting up a political party. She is sending a chilling effect through the country. Bangladesh has become a model of what can be done, despite her government’s corrupt, poisonous politics. It would be a tragedy if it once again became an example of what not to do.

THIS week’s Economist examines one of the most intriguing puzzles in development: Bangladesh.

By most standards, Bangladesh looks like a disaster. It was the original “basket case” (Henry Kissinger’s dismissive term) and remains a poor country; it has only half India’s income per head. Until recently, its economic growth was paltry. City states apart, it is the world’s most densely populated country, with around 150m people crammed onto the delta of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, an area regularly swept by devastating floods. Its private sector is weak and its government widely perceived as corrupt and dysfunctional.

And yet Bangladesh has done better than most countries at improving the basic standard of living of its people. Bangladeshis can expect to live four years longer than Indians even though they are much poorer. The country has achieved some of the largest reductions in early deaths of infants, children and women in childbirth ever seen anywhere.

So that is the puzzle: Bangladesh combines economic disappointment with social progress. The Economist suggests four factors to explain why.

First, Bangladesh has done more than most countries to improve the status of women. This was partly deliberate policy (the country invented microcredit and these tiny loans were targeted at women). And it was partly an unintended consequence of other things. Because the country was so crowded and poor, its founders decided after independence to embark on a big family-planning programme. This reduced fertility but also raised the status of women within the household since it was they who now controlled the size of the family. The textile industry later took off in Bangladesh, and 80% of the workers are women. So women’s status and income both improved. Women are much more likely than men to spend money on their family’s health, education and meals, so child welfare rose.

Second, Bangladesh has been unusually good at boosting incomes in the country—and since the deepest poverty in developing countries tends to be rural, this has helped the very poorest. The mechanisms here were the Green Revolution, which meant the country could grow two crops a year, and remittances (around 6m Bangladeshis work abroad, mostly in the Gulf).

Third, the government deserves credit for maintaining basic social spending. Indeed, it has kept up a consensus in favour of this despite several military coups and bitter political infighting between the two main parties.

But public spending would probably have been wasted and frittered away (as it has happened so often elsewhere) were it not for the fourth factor, which The Economist calls the magic ingredient in the mix: large non-government organisations which have managed to scale up their programmes to work nationwide without losing the idealism of their early days, when they were small and beautiful.

The briefing goes into a lot more details on each of these. The accompanying
editorial tackles a question naturally raised by the story: if Bangladesh’s social achievements have been greater than its economic ones, does that mean economic growth is pointless?

The editorial says no. True, Bangladesh shows you do not need to wait for lots of growth. But it might have done even better had its economy grown faster. Growth either made only a modest contribution to the factors that mattered most (such as the internal workings of NGOs or the family-planning programme, which people wanted anyway). Or it would have helped them along more (for example, the adoption of Green Revolution seeds or microloans). There were no strong trade-offs.


Bangladesh and development

The path through the fields

Bangladesh has dysfunctional politics and a stunted private sector. Yet it has been surprisingly good at improving the lives of its poor

Villagers are doing it for themselves

ON THE outskirts of the village of Shibaloy, just past the brick factory, the car slows to let a cow lumber out of its way. It is a good sign. Twenty years ago there was no brick factory, or any other industry, in this village 60 kilometres west of Dhaka; there were few cows, and no cars. The road was a raised path too narrow for anything except bicycles.

Now, Shibaloy has just opened its first primary school; it is installing piped water and the young men of the village gather to show off their motorcycles at the tea house. “I have been a microcredit customer for 17 years,” says Romeja, the matriarch of an extended family. “When I started, my house was broken; I slept on the streets. Now I have three cows, an acre of land, solar panels on the roof and 75,000 taka ($920) in fixed-rate deposits.”

Bangladesh was the original development “basket case”, the demeaning term used in Henry Kissinger’s state department for countries that would always depend on aid. Its people are crammed onto a flood plain swept by cyclones and without big mineral and other natural resources. It suffered famines in 1943 and 1974 and military coups in 1975, 1982 and 2007. When it split from Pakistan in 1971 many observers doubted that it could survive as an independent state.

In some ways, those who doubted Bangladesh’s potential were right. Economic growth since the 1970s has been poor; the country’s politics have been unremittingly wretched. Yet over the past 20 years, Bangladesh has made some of the biggest gains in the basic condition of people’s lives ever seen anywhere. Between 1990 and 2010 life expectancy rose by 10 years, from 59 to 69 (see chart 1). Bangladeshis now have a life expectancy four years longer than Indians, despite the Indians being, on average, twice as rich. Even more remarkably, the improvement in life expectancy has been as great among the poor as the rich.

Bangladesh has also made huge gains in education and health. More than 90% of girls enrolled in primary school in 2005, slightly more than boys. That was twice the female enrolment rate in 2000. Infant mortality has more than halved, from 97 deaths per thousand live births in 1990 to 37 per thousand in 2010 (see table). Over the same period child mortality fell by two-thirds and maternal mortality fell by three-quarters. It now stands at 194 deaths per 100,000 births. In 1990 women could expect to live a year less than men; now they can expect to live two years more.

The most dramatic period of improvement in human health in history is often taken to be that of late-19th-century Japan, during the remarkable modernisation of the Meiji transition. Bangladesh’s record on child and maternal mortality has been comparable in scale.

These improvements are not a simple result of increases in people’s income. Bangladesh remains a poor country, with a GDP per head of $1,900 at purchasing-power parity.

For the first decades of its independent history Bangladesh’s economy grew by a paltry 2% a year. Since 1990 its GDP has been rising at a more respectable 5% a year, in real terms. That has helped reduce the percentage of people below the poverty line from 49% in 2000 to 32% in 2010. Still, Bangladeshi growth has been slower than India’s, which for most of the past 20 years grew at around 8% a year. Nevertheless the gains in its development have been greater. The belief that growth brings development with it—the “Washington consensus”—is often criticised on the basis that some countries have had good growth but little poverty reduction. Bangladesh embodies the inverse of that: it has had disproportionate poverty reduction for its amount of growth.

How has it done it?

Four main factors explain this surprising success. First, family planning has empowered women. If you leave aside city states, Bangladesh is the world’s most densely populated country. At independence, its leaders decided that they had to restrain further population growth (China’s one-child policy and India’s forced sterilisation both date from roughly the same time). Fortunately, Bangladesh’s new government lacked the power to be coercive. Instead, birth control was made free and government workers and volunteers fanned out across the country to distribute pills and advice. In 1975, 8% of women of child-bearing age were using contraception (or had partners who were); in 2010 the number was over 60% (see chart 2).

In 1975 the total fertility rate (the average number of children a woman can expect to have during her lifetime) was 6.3. In 1993 it was 3.4. After stalling, it resumed its fall in 2000. After one of the steepest declines in history the fertility rate is now just 2.3, slightly above the “replacement level” at which the population stabilises in the long term. When Bangladesh and Pakistan split in 1971, they each had a population of 65m or so. Bangladesh’s is now around 150m; Pakistan’s is almost 180m.

Because of this Bangladesh is about to reap a “demographic dividend”; the number of people entering adulthood will handsomely exceed the number of children being born, increasing the share of the total population that works.

In giving women better health and more autonomy, family planning was one of a number of factors that improved their lot, and by so doing did much to reduce poverty. The spread of primary education was one of the others (the government has been better than many at helping women this way); the proportion of girls who get schooled has increased much more than the proportion of boys. And both the boom in the textile industry and the arrival of microcredit have, over the past 20 years, put money into women’s pockets—from which it is more likely to be spent on health, education and better food.

Second, Bangladesh managed to restrain the fall in rural household incomes that usually increases extreme poverty in developing countries. Between 1971 and 2010 the rice harvest more than trebled, though the area under cultivation increased by less than 10%. This year the country once supposedly doomed to dependence on food aid could be a small exporter of rice. One-sixth of the population remains undernourished, which is a blight; but it is an improvement on 20 years ago, when more than a third of the population was underweight or stunted.

Yield alone is not the whole story. The new crops of the Green Revolution allowed rice growers to move to two harvests a year. The rice of the Ganges delta used to be monsoon, or aman, rice; it was planted before the annual rains and harvested after. Nowboro rice, planted and harvested in winter, is the main crop. For people just above the poverty line, the sort of event most likely to plunge them into extreme poverty is a sudden external shock, such as an illness or a harvest failure. By expanding the winter crop, boro rice reduces the risk of a harvest failing in a way that shocks a household into abject poverty. Between 2007 and 2012 Bangladesh went through three global food-price spikes and two cyclones. Almost everyone expected a spike in poverty to follow. It did not.

The villages have also found resources from beyond agriculture—and, indeed, beyond Bangladesh. Around 6m Bangladeshis work abroad, mostly in the Middle East, and they remit a larger share of the national income than any other big country gets from migrants. In the year ending in June 2012 they sent back $13 billion, about 14% of annual income—more than all the government’s social-protection programmes put together. The majority of migrant workers send their remittances back to family members in the village they came from. Because emigrants are more likely to come from better off families, those families benefit most. But knock-on effects on rural wages benefit landless labourers. The World Bank calculates that between 2000 and 2010, real agricultural wages rose 59%, compared with 42% for all sectors. Most countries have seen a reduction in rural living standards, and a resultant increase in extreme poverty. Bangladesh has not.

Remittances and family planning have not attacked extreme poverty directly. That is where the government comes in.

Bangladesh comes 120th (out of 183) on the “corruption perceptions index” kept by Transparency International, a think-tank in Berlin. It has had episodes of military rule interrupting periods of democracy in which the “battling begums” (daughter and widow of two early presidents) engaged in a sort of Judy and Judy show of vicious political infighting.

Yet despite the political circus, the country’s elite has maintained a consensus in favour of social programmes. Bangladesh spends a little more than most low-income countries on helping the poor. About 12% of public spending (1.8% of GDP) goes on social safety-nets to protect the poorest: food for work, cash transfers and direct feeding programmes, which most poor countries do not have. As well as spending more on the poor, the state also focuses more than many on the role of women.

That said, the amounts that go on education (2.2% of GDP) and health (3.5%) in Bangladesh are below the average for low-income countries. And even that spending might well have been wasted but for one further influence: the extraordinary role played by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the country. Without the state’s schools, clinics and cash-transfer schemes, says Rehman Sobhan, the head of the Centre for Policy Dialogue, a think-tank, other interventions would not work. It is the things which NGOs do, though, that make Bangladesh’s way of fighting poverty unique.

BRAC (which originally stood for Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee, but now is the only name the organisation needs) invented the idea of microcredit, that is, tiny loans to the destitute. Then another NGO, Grameen Bank, made them work by targeting them on women and holding weekly meetings of borrowers who would identify and support anyone who was falling behind on repayments. Their growth since has been explosive. Grameen has 8.4m borrowers and outstanding loans of over $1 billion; BRAC has 5m borrowers and loans of $725m. The poor account for roughly a fifth of the total loan portfolio of the country, an unusually high proportion.

Since their establishment, microcredits have spread around the world. Their benefits have been both exaggerated and attacked. The backlash has shown that microcredits have not, as some claimed, led to a surge of entrepreneurial activity. In some cases they have left borrowers worse off than before. Their impact in the land of their birth, though, has been mostly positive. Mohammad Razzaque of Dhaka University looked at two groups of people with similar incomes and household assets, one of which contained regular borrowers from a variety of microfinance institutions and the other of which did not, to see whether microcredit helped. Among the first group the poverty rate fell ten percentage points, from 78% in 1998 to 68% in 2004. Among the second, poverty still fell, but only half as much, from 75% to 70%.

The magic ingredient

The real magic of Bangladesh, though, was not microfinance but BRAC—and NGOs more generally. The government of Bangladesh has been unusually friendly to NGOs, perhaps because, to begin with, it realised it needed all the help it could get.

BRAC began life distributing emergency aid in a corner of eastern Bangladesh after the war of independence. It is now the largest NGO in the world by the number of employees and the number of people it has helped (three-quarters of all Bangladeshis have benefited in one way or another). Unlike Grameen, which is mainly a microfinance and savings operation, BRAC does practically everything. In the 1980s it sent out volunteers to every household in the country showing mothers how to mix salt, sugar and water in the right proportions to rehydrate a child suffering from diarrhoea. This probably did more to lower child mortality in the country than anything else. BRAC and the government jointly ran a huge programme to inoculate every Bangladeshi against tuberculosis. BRAC’s primary schools are a safety net for children who drop out of state schools. BRAC even has the world’s largest legal-aid programme: there are more BRAC legal centres than police stations in Bangladesh.

The scale is a response to one of the biggest challenges of development: that solving one problem leads to others. This happens in economic development as well as the social kind. In the 1950s South Korea’s Samsung had a big woollen mill. It found that to expand, it had to make its own textile machinery; then, to export, it built its own ships; and so on. Samsung now has around 80 companies and is the world’s largest information-technology firm. BRAC is a sort of chaebol (South Korean conglomerate)for social development. It began with microcredit, but found its poor clients could not sell the milk and eggs produced by the animals they had bought. So BRAC got into food processing. When it found the most destitute were too poor for micro-loans, it set up a programme which gave them animals. Now it runs dairies, a packaging business, a hybrid-seed producer, textile plants and its own shops—as well as schools for dropouts, clinics and sanitation plants.

The innovative NGO now has 100,000 health volunteers with mobile phones (mobile-phone coverage is widespread in Bangladesh). When a volunteer finds a woman is pregnant, she texts the mother-to-be with advice on prenatal and, later, postnatal care. This is helping BRAC build up a database of maternal and child-health patterns in remote villages.

BRAC goes out of its way to involve everyone. When it set up a programme for the ultra-poor in Shibaloy, the whole village gathered to decide who should be eligible. They drew a map of the households in the dirt so everyone could see who was involved and ensure that nobody was missed (the same process, in a different village, is pictured below). BRAC argues that such things encourage a sense of ownership of the programmes and reduces waste and corruption.

A balance-sheet

Bangladesh still has formidable problems. Its nutritional standards are low and stalled for a few years in the early 2000s. While the government has managed to increase school enrolment, the quality of education is abysmal and the drop-out rate exceptionally high (only 60% of pupils complete primary school, much less than the regional average). Only a quarter of eleven-year-olds have reached the required standards of literacy and numeracy.

Most of the big improvements have taken place in rural areas, but Bangladesh is urbanising fast, which will bring a different suite of problems. Dhaka is one of the ten largest cities in the world, but has the infrastructure of a one-buffalo town.

Villagers are doing it for themselves


And as if all that were not enough, the government seems intent on killing one of the geese that lays the golden eggs. Incensed that the founder of Grameen Bank, Muhammad Yunus, should have had the temerity to start a political party, the prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, has hounded him from his position as the bank’s managing director and is seeking to impose her own choice of boss on the bank, overriding the interests of the owner-borrowers. This is sending a chilling signal to other NGOs.

But Bangladesh’s record is, on balance, a good one. It shows that the benefits of making women central to development are huge. It suggests that migration is not just the result of a failure to provide jobs at home but can be an engine of economic growth. Indian’s rural-development minister, Jairam Ramesh, said recently that “Bangladesh’s experience shows…that we don’t have to wait for…high economic growth to trigger social transformations. Robust grass-roots institutions can achieve much that money can’t buy.”

Bangladesh is still poor and crowded. With the lowest labour costs in the world (textile workers make about $35 a month) it should be growing faster than China, not more slowly than India. It is badly governed, stifled by red tape and faces severe environmental problems. But in terms of the success of its grass-roots development, it has lessons for the world.

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You can discuss Economics Millennium Challenge and other puzzles on Joy of Jub Creating Economics set by The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant at , or chat with wash dc 1 301 881 1655  skype chrismacraedc

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The unacknowledged giant

 Teenage Norman learnt economics from an Indian correspondence course whist waiting to navigate ww2 RAF planes out of modern day Bangladesh. The Economist celebrates his life 16 Novemeber 18.30 pm St James London. In 1984 he became the first journalist of www forecasting 2010s as youth's most exciting decade connecting Asia Pacific www Century. He was also the first journalist of the EU , and was concerned with how (unfree) media can destroy economics, communities and so peoples.   Linkin dialogues : 1


1 At the start of the 1970s, in  bloody war of independence from Pakistan , the nation of Bangladesh was born poorest in world because it inherited the shortest straw from British colonialism

2 However, Bangladesh’s great good fortune: to be empowered by 2 of the world’s leading entrepreneurs: its youth are now leaders of net generation’s sustainability world (as recognised by eg the head of the Nobel peace judges: Dhaka 17 July 2008 when he addressed a meeting of Bangladeshi youth: You have dreams of prosperity and peace in Bangladesh, I will join you. You have dreams for a good life for the future generations in Bangladesh, I will join you. We all have dreams for peace and justice in the world. Let us do it together. Asia has a very important role to play.  

3 Thanks to 30 years work by America’s leading grassroots network : yes we can help American and worldwide youth turn round 2010s from macroeconomics most depressing decade to microeconomics most exciting decade

September 2010 , US Congress Votes For Economic Genius of our Generation
Bangladesh invites you to map connections with capitals and villages that wish to hub sustinbility's world trade round youth job creation. www Collab Game 1: please help survey (RSVP Top 20 identifiers of 2010s most exciting decade .There will also be plenty of world service broadcasting opportunities to get updated animated by 3000 person -Youth & Yunus- future capital festivals starting with Glasgow summer 2011. Themes in the race to poverty musuems we are currently working on:
MicroEconomics Foci.
  • Village-poorest banking
  • Urban youth poorest banking
  • Job Creation
  • Health
  • Microeconomics SMBA & Sustainability Professionals
  • Info Tech (mobile bridging of digital divides)
  • Green energy & abundant organic agriculture
  • Water including factories & communities working on a zero-waste future
  • Community & Poorest-owned (free) market sectors
  • Education to teens
  • Education teens
  • e-gov including community empowering social dynamics of daringnation 
  • Social Business Stockmarket & Funds 
Asian-Pacific Sustainability trade & multi-win leadership maps:

Friends of Bangladesh- Embargo 11 Feb 2011


Download whole of First Issue; Discuss with us if your future capital or sustainabiloity network could edit special issue

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SUBJECT : Can you help survey  next actions linking in Norman Macrae's Underacknowledged Purpose?

Norman Macrae’s Purpose (& that of unacknowledged Micro-Media(te)-Innovating-Economists)

To employ worldwide journalism to search for innovations in economics with greatest compound impact for the human lot

Place innovations

EU only journalist at birth: Messina (after observing as teenager: stalin's moscow, hitler's europe, and English colonialism's India) 

Japan 1962

Start of Asia Pacific Century 1975 (with china as epicentred of 2 billion people’s rising productivity)

Silicon Valley at sun micro's birth time when venture capitalism involved giving start ups 6 months free ir ticket nd list of leaders to try to connect sales with

Berlin (& east-west interfaces of Europe ) 1984-1988

Sweden Den Nye Vikingen 1993

Global partnering with Bangladesh 2008

Prototype internet 1973: UK mationl development project (computer assisted learing)

1970s telecommuting : being productive other than where located

Internet generation 1984-2024 united round economics greatest system goal: end of children born into poverty traps (open sources connections between end poverty in developing countries and let people crete more jobs than technology takes in developed nations, and then ending politicians' macroeconomics of nations!)

Von Neumann : above Zero-sum games-exponentially revisited for starting up death of distance's millennium's - transparently mediated around billion person global village dialogues of most exciting goals for 2020

1976 Entrepreneurial revolution – ending the risk that mass media spun economics of big bet bigger

1982 Intrapreneurship : service economy

With Drucker knowledge worker as service plus economy

Networked (death of  distance) end of digitally divided economy

Community-rising privatization

Some sectors questioned (what happens if their costs (or per cent of  family’s budget) exponentially increases):

Property early 1960s

Country’s risk of imbalance due to one mega-capital

TV advertising spot 1976

Healthcare 1984

(help with others I forgot or never knew of dad please!)

Rush Holt, New Jersey

Award Congressional Gold Medal to Economic Genius, Muhammad Yunus I rise in strong support of this legislation to award Dr Muhammad Yunus the congressional gold medal ; the house has garnered 297 bipartisan sponsors of this bill; Muhammad Yunus is widely known as banker to the poor and is one of the world’s great humanitarians, and an economic genius From this first experience, with the power of  small amount of money, yunus developed the concept of  microcredit;  with just a few dollars to work with the poor are able to become entrepreneurs;  they sell vegetables or clothing or other handmade goods and other products in order to slowly generate and accumulate profits; or they devise clever service industries with the cell phone or a computer that they can buy with the microloan; and it turns out that the poor are wary of debt , and are careful stewards of money; repayment rates of microloans are consistently near 97%, and step by step these borrowers build individual ladders on which they can climb out of poverty and into mainstream economy Microfinance institutions now serve over 160 million people in developing countries; women who make up 60% of the world’s poorest citizens and disproportionately shoulder the burdens of poverty receive over 95% of the microloans; the funds allow them to increase their independence and improve the quality of life of their entire families Jim McDermott Washington Getting 290 members to sign something is not an easy task however the object of this gold medal Dr Yunus is clearly somebody who is worth working for. I got to know him by being out in Bangladesh to the villages watching the whole process of the women paying their debts. I also had the opportunity when he came to Seattle to introduce him to a Results dinner of about 500 people. The impact of Dr Yunus goes far beyond the Grameen Bank – Seattle has probably 40 microlending operations working worldwide where this idea that this man created has been taken by other people and it works anywhere. What’s remarkable is to think about how one man faced with the poverty in the most densely populated country Bangladesh could say to himself : you know I think I can change this and then not only did he think that but he went out and did it. I think that’s why a gold medal for dr yunus is so important for us to remember in congress. We often think we have to give 100 million dollars or 80 billion dollars or whatever- this man started with $27 and created something that effected millions and millions of people.
Spencer Bachus, AlabamaOverdue recognition of a vastly important concept: what credit can do Over the last couple of the years we have talked about the effects of the recent economics crisis, and how it has limited our ability to procure loans in this country. We all know that credit is the lifeblood of both business and daily life. And that businesses need capital to invest in tools, labour and raw materials and that in individuals need credit for short term needs and long term investments such as education.. It is a testimony to the man we honor today that he both recognised the needs of many for loans of very small amounts of money and devised a system that can be replicated anywhere to address that need. In the years since the founding of Grameen, the model has blossomed in projects ranging from information technology and communications to food production with partners ranging from small local companies to giant multinationals. One project has funded installation of nearly half a million small solar electrical plants producing power for off the grid people in Bangladesh. I remember reading the book by Robert Caro about Lyndon Johnson and what electricity meant to the hill country of Texas- the miracle that we saw in America a century ago is being repeated in these countries now: the miracle of electricity. . Dr Yunus holds out the possibility that another offshoot he calls Social Business might be a way to help redevelop Haiti and bring its people out of poverty , as well as in developed countries to provide  a path to help the poor become self-supporting without the need for welfare.

4 Bangladesh is today’s epicentre of sustainability world’s free market system designs as Adam Smith scholars out of Glasgow are celebrating with the new journal of social business and an emerging summer Fringe Festival supported by Artists Peace Corps  and hubs of future capitalism  ...

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Saturday, November 27, 2010

your ideas sound good to me; the Social Action is to interpret worldwide sub-branding of Norman's Consider genre as helping to connect several dots: in what I write below I would be most delighted to be told if you see any mistakes I am making; 27 years of chartering what intrenet can do, even the most optimistic realists have run out of time for perfect (ie safe) processes to sustain the planet, we have to co-create guesses of what will unite young people of goodwill beyond borders


until the journal of social business,  consider leaflets are the only thing we have to connect those people who want to be involved with propagating actions that yunus congress (expected may 2011) testimony newly makes possible. (someone needs to follow up my intervention with my old boss martin sorrell at wpp the world's largest ad agency on the nov 16 launch of meetings debating 2010s decade of good news media; he's the sort who zags except when he hears someone else a few hundred yards away from him is having more fun leading; its same with my dad's old mates soros and murdoch )


Of the 12 types of social busienss partner data collected by 2000 book readers shows yunus spends his time looking for the test of whether a country has a leader of status that will help yunus is whether we can find anyone who would passionately wnt a consdier published for their own country's social business collaboration with the worldwide

-presumably we do know people who want that for kenya and and japan and india nd jordan and australia - not sure where else we do


Demontrating that Bangladesh , as sustainability world trade centre of asia pacific century,  has the trust (and 21st C's social business capital markets) to find partners to use technology to ensure bangladesh wins the poverty museum race; until someone shows me another publication channel , consider bangladesh can represent that


--- On Fri, 26/11/10, Mostofa Zaman, London <> wrote:

From: Mostofa Zaman, London <>
Subject: Version 1 of Consider Bangladesh
To: "Christopher Macrae" <>
Date: Friday, 26 November, 2010, 23:30

Hi Chris:
I am starting to design the version 1 of Consider Bangladesh. I think that it would be perfect if we could include 
1. Something on the biggest prospects of bangladesh technology
2. Also a short survey report of status of all Bangladeshi so far social business so that people can see the current status and also that Social Business is working well as Sam was unexpectedly questioned by a girl while in North South.
3. Some web links.   
I will ask views from other peoples later after I add to/ improve the above.

I have already contacted British Council where I am confirmed to meet them while I am next in dhaka. So the V1 will be sampled at British Council and North South.
Best Regards,
Skype: mostofa-zaman
9:27 am est 

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wikileaks bangladesh   -view from calcutta feb 2007

sheikh of things to come  -The Economist Summer 2011


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